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Ghaziabad, UP, India
Principal Maharishi Vidya Mandir Obaidullaganj- M.P.

Saturday, September 25, 2010

India Vision 2020

Turning India Vision 2020 into reality – role of technology financing

By ajayniranjan Dr. Abdul Kalam speaks, writes and works having a live vision at the back of his mind “Be India a Developed Nation“. The action plan to realise this blue print of mind into reality must have on the top of its itinerary ‘the technology’. Grooming ‘technology’ from seed upto a fruit bearing tree is an art, science and a specialised enterprise in itself.

Like in other businesses, finance is an important element here too. However, the key to success lies in assessing where, when and how to facilitate entry for money in the process of technological project realization. The author has a wide exposure to the whole tree of ‘technological growth process’ in various capacities – a grass root scientist, technocrat, industrial consultant and writer. It is with this backdrop that he enumerates the basic ingredients involved in making a technology idea grow into a full business, by ensuring the entry of financial sources at pre-assessed stages.

A vision is a picture of what is possible or what is desired in a longer-term future. It could be of one individual in origin or it could be a collective in its conception. The Technology Vision 2020 was a massive national exercise implemented by Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) during the years 1994 and 1995 and was released to the nation through a form of 25 documents on 2nd August, 1996 by the then Prime Minister. It resulted due to the tireless efforts of 500 persons with inputs from about 5000 persons from different fields of India.

A brief presentation of the findings of vision exercise along with several other linked factors such as the concept of developed India, economic issues, social issues and also certain implementational issues, have been brought out in a book “India 2020″ by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam along with the author.

Further elaboration starting with the vision and also dealing with several aspects of important interconnected policies and procedures as well as the processes of science and technology and human dimensions, have been brought out by the author in a book ‘Empowering Indians’ (revised reprint 2002 with a foreward by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam).

These two books contain substantive information about the details of the vision and also the various possibilities of implementation. The book referred to in Ref.2 has also described some of the projects in which TIFAC is involved in attempting to realise the vision into action as a major demonstrative exercise.

Much more can be seen in the TIFAC website: www.tifac.org.in , which is continually updated. Several other parameters such as technology capabilities, organisational capabilities, project management market research, etc. are also important in realising the vision. Therefore this paper briefly addresses the role of technology financing.

bull.jpg (5174 bytes) Technology idea to business: The essential steps

Often many persons including scientists and technologists tend to believe that a scientific or technological idea if pursued with sufficient funding and support, would automatically result in a commercial operation. Many also tend to think that basic research to technology to commerce is a straight forward linear process given enough time and money.

In actual life, science and technology are distinct elements though interwined. Technology and technological skills and knowledge are not automatic input-output derivatives of basic scientific research. These are discussed in some detail in Ref.2 citing a number of quotes and references from scholars. In actual practice, technology is complex and tacit (i.e. embodied in persons and organisations).

There are many different strands of technology in a single product or service. Therefore, having an excellence in one technological element alone does not assure a commercial product, let alone a commercial success. Based on the experiences of TIFAC and also of Technology Development Board (TDB), Prof. VS Ramamurthy, Secretary, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India often emphasises in a number of meetings and speeches that while financing is an important component, technology development does not take place merely by stepping up finance.

There are many other prior activities which need to be done if technology development can mature into a good business activity. It is precisely in this area where TIFAC has done considerable amount of work during the past 14 years. In the subsequent paragraphs the author will try to compress a few important issues relating to converting of technological ideas into business operations.

In actual life, science and technology are distinct elements though intertwined. Technology and technological skills and knowledge are not automatic input-output derivatives of basic scientific research
Let us refer to Fig.1. The x-axis of the Figure is time. The quantity of time will depend upon the product or service under consideration. For a completely new area time at the right hand end i.e., the time for “produce and supply to market”, could even be 7 years. In a number of cases in industry it would be of the order of ½ – 3 years for incremental innovations.

In fact, a good business strategy should be to have a number of technologically induced innovative products with different cycle times for realisation, so that in the overall, the technology development (which requires financing) will be continuously giving financial outputs through delivery to market, thus not becoming a drain on the overall to the company. This may be called “technology development diversification strategy”.

Lord Buddha Speaks


  1. Ø Mere Suffering exists, No sufferer is found, The deed Is, but No doer of the deed is found, Nirvana is, but not the man that enters it, The path is, but no traveller on it is seen

  2. Ø I gained nothing at all from Supreme Enlightenment, and for that very reason it is called Supreme Enlightenment.

  3. Ø There is only one time when it is essential to awaken. That time is now.

  4. Ø Attachment is the source of all suffering.

  5. Ø Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.

  6. Ø The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, not to worry about the future, or not to anticipate troubles, but to live in the present moment wisely and earnestly.

  7. Ø The Mind is the source of happiness and unhappiness.

  8. Ø There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed.

  9. Ø Look within, thou art the Buddha.

  10. Ø 'He insulted me, he cheated me, he beat me, he robbed me.' Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.

  11. Ø Thou one man conquers a thousand men, a thousand times in battle, he who conquers himself is the greatest warrior.

  12. Ø He who never thinks of anything as mine' does not feel the lack of anything: he is never worried by a sense of loss.

  13. Ø The whole secret of existence is to have no fear. Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.

  14. Ø The greatest prayer is patience.

  15. Ø Meditate. Live purely. Be quiet. Do your work with mastery. Like the moon, come out from behind the clouds! Shine.

  16. Ø Decay is inherent in all compounded things. Strive on with diligence. - Buddha's last words

  17. Ø There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it.

  18. Ø A wise man, recognizing that the world is but an illusion, does not act as if it is real, so he escapes the suffering.

  19. Ø Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.

  20. Ø Endurance is one of the most difficult disciplines, but it is to the one who endures that the final victory comes.

  21. Ø It is a man's own mind, not his enemy or foe, that lures him to evil ways.

  22. Ø It is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand battles. Then the victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you, not by angels or by demons, heaven or hell.

  23. Ø Let a man avoid evil deeds as a man who loves life avoids poison.

  24. Ø Nothing is permanent.

  25. Ø The thought manifests as the word; The word manifests as the deed; The deed develops into habit; And habit hardens into character. So watch the thought and its ways with care, And let it spring from love Born out of concern for all beings.

  26. Ø The world, indeed, is like a dream and the treasures of the world are an alluring mirage! Like the apparent distances in a picture, things have no reality in themselves, but they are like heat haze.

Friday, September 17, 2010

Osho on Meditation

Modern man is a very new phenomenon. No traditional method can be used exactly as it exists because modern man never existed before. So, in a way, all traditional methods have become irrelevant.

For example, the body has changed so much. It is so drugged that no traditional method can be helpful. The whole atmosphere is artificial now: the air, the water, society, living conditions. Nothing is natural. You are born in artificiality; you develop in it. So traditional methods will prove harmful today. They will have to be changed according to the modern situation.

Another thing: the quality of the mind has basically changed. In Patanjali's [the most famous commentator on Yoga] days, the center of the human personality was not the brain; it was the heart. Before that, it was not even the heart. It was still lower, near the navel. The center has gone even further from the navel. Now, the center is the brain. That is why teachings like those of Krishnamurti have appeal. No method is needed, no technique is needed – only understanding. But if it is just a verbal understanding, just intellectual, nothing changes, nothing is transformed. It again becomes an accumulation of knowledge.

I use chaotic methods rather than systematic ones because a chaotic method is very helpful in pushing the center down from the brain. The center cannot be pushed down through any systematic method because systemization is brainwork. Through a systematic method, the brain will be strengthened; more energy will be added to it. Through chaotic methods the brain is nullified. It has nothing to do. The method is so chaotic that the center is automatically pushed from the brain to the heart. If you do my method of Dynamic Meditation vigorously, unsystematically, chaotically, your center moves to the heart. Then there is a catharsis.

A catharsis is needed because your heart is so suppressed, due to your brain. Your brain has taken over so much of your being that it dominates you. There is no place for the heart, so the longings of the heart are suppressed. You have never laughed heartily, never lived heartily, never done anything heartily. The brain always comes in to systematize, to make things mathematical, and the heart is suppressed. So firstly, a chaotic method is needed to push the center of consciousness from the brain toward the heart.

Then catharsis is needed to unburden the heart, to throw off suppressions, to make the heart open. If the heart becomes light and unburdened, then the center of consciousness is pushed still lower; it comes to the navel. The navel is the source of vitality, the seed source from which everything else comes: the body and the mind and everything.

I use this chaotic method very considerately. Systematic methodology will not help now, because the brain will use it as its own instrument. Nor can just the chanting of bhajans help now, because the heart is so burdened that it cannot flower into real chanting. Consciousness must be pushed down to the source, to the roots. Only then is there the possibility of transformation. So I use chaotic methods to push the consciousness downward from the brain.

Whenever you are in chaos, the brain stops working. For example, if you are driving a car and suddenly someone runs in front of you, you react so suddenly that it cannot be the work of the brain. The brain takes time. It thinks about what to do and what not to do. So whenever there is a possibility of an accident and you push the brake, you feel a sensation near your navel, as if it were your stomach that is reacting. Your consciousness is pushed down to the navel because of the accident. If the accident could be calculated beforehand, the brain would be able to deal with it; but when you are in an accident, something unknown happens. Then you notice that your consciousness has moved to the navel.

If you ask a Zen monk, "From where do you think?" he puts his hands on his belly. When Westerners came into contact with Japanese monks for the first time they could not understand. "What nonsense! How can you think from your belly?

But the Zen reply is meaningful. Consciousness can use any center of the body, and the center that is nearest to the original source is the navel. The brain is furthest away from the original source, so if life energy is moving outward, the center of consciousness will become the brain. And if life energy is moving inward, ultimately the navel will become the center.

Chaotic methods are needed to push the consciousness to its roots, because only from the roots is transformation possible. Otherwise you will go on verbalizing and there will be no transformation. It is not enough just to know what is right. You have to transform the roots; otherwise you will not change.

When a person knows the right thing and cannot do anything about it, he becomes doubly tense. He understands, but he cannot do anything. Understanding is meaningful only when it comes from the navel, from the roots. If you understand from the brain, it is not transforming.

The ultimate cannot be known through the brain, because when you are functioning through the brain you are in conflict with the roots from which you have come. Your whole problem is that you have moved away from the navel. You have come from the navel and you will die through it. One has to come back to the roots. But coming back is difficult, arduous.

Traditional methods have an appeal because they are so ancient and so many people have achieved through them in the past. They may have become irrelevant to us, but they were not irrelevant to Buddha, Mahavira, Patanjali or Krishna. They were meaningful, helpful. The old methods may be meaningless now, but because Buddha achieved through them they have an appeal. The traditionalist feels: "If Buddha achieved through these methods, why can't I?”

But we are in an altogether different situation now. The whole atmosphere, the whole thought-sphere, has changed. Every method is organic to a particular situation, to a particular mind, to a particular man. The fact that the old methods don't work doesn't mean that no method is useful. It only means that the methods themselves must change. As I see the situation, modern man has changed so much that he needs new methods, new techniques.

Spiritual Indian Education


India’s ancient wisdom and value system are great heritage of mankind. We took back into our history and culture; we find that our educational systems, leadership values and managerial process, designed by Rishis are great source of inspiration and motivation. The present education system is based on Western ethos, which ignores the polishing and development of the inner instrument of man, his mind and his life. It ignores the innate divinity, the self within and focuses only on the body, mind and intellect. This lack of focus on developing the powers of concentration of the mind and ignores the need for the unfoldment of the innate perfection, peace and happiness of self, is therefore, directly responsible for the lowering of our character and value. The present article deals with Sri Aurobindo’s philosophy of education.

During the freedom struggle, some great leaders of modern India, who were also educationists, challenged the British systems of education and developed powerful philosophies of education so as to provide to the students not only the lessons of the Indian heritage but also to prepare them for the future greatness of India. These are as follow:

Mahrishi Dayananda Saraswati: He went back to the Vedic foundations and put forth a system of education that would reform India and make it progressive. He inspired the Gurukul system of education and underlined the great role of the teacher in uplifting the talent and character of the pupil.

Swami Vivekananda: He spoke of man-making education and accepting Vedantic knowledge as the base, acknowledge the truth of every religion and a synthesis of Yoga, he opened the gates of the future before the youth, filling them with a new spirit of inspiration, heroism and dynamic action.

Mahatma Gandhi: He emphasised the training of the Hand, Heart and Head, overarched by the values of Truth, Non-violence, Self-control, Non-conventiousness and Renunciation , as also equal respect towards all religion and life of simplicity that aims at reconstruction and reform of rural, social, political organizations based on equality, empowerment of the week and the oppressed , decentralization and brother hood.

Rabindra Nath Tagore: He established Santiniketan, and experimental Institute for a new aim and mode of education where the beauty and sublime of nature can serve as a living partner of teaching and learning and where the values of poetry, music and art can vibrate personality and mingling of cultures of Asia and of the world that would promote internationalism and world-citizenship, and universal fraternity that transcends all division of race and religion in the Religion of Man. And there also arose also the nationalist call of “Vande Mataram” that gave birth to the movement of the National System of Education with the aim of recreating the ancient Indian spirit that was at once spiritual, intellectual, scientific, artistic and productive, and empowered now with new vigour to assimilate all that is new and progressive and to create new forms of expression and synthesis of powers of personality and knowledge and harmony of the East and West.

Sri Aurobindo: He formulated the philosophy of education system in 1909 and developed it further in subsequent decades so as to embody the light and power of the synthesis of yoga and a programme of integral transformation of human life of the earth that would lead the evolution of the Nature into the birth of a new humanity and super-humanity.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: He was a revolutionary, rationalist and humanist , a man who looked ahead of his time. His philosophy of education aims at creation of a liberating consciousness which is not just formal education but the conscientisation process of education, agitation and organization, put together. Education enriches the intellectual powers of the learners and to promote a respect for reason. He reintroduced the philosophy and spirituality of Buddhism, in modern India. For him, education is an instrument to change the destiny.

J.Krishanamurti: He gave new dimensions to religion, spirituality, philosophy, psychology and education by his vision. His philosophy of education is related to the question of youth which is related to their daily life. He aims at to draw a subject matter of education which is directly related to human efforts and his life. He leaves rigid philosophical, spiritual, religious, and psychological conceptions related to the nature of education and gave a more popular and acceptable conception of education. He was a eminent thinker and spiritual teacher of modern India.

Sri Raman Mahrishi: He was a silent Teacher. His most direct and profound teaching was transmitted in silence. Unique in our time, he perfectly embodied the ultimate truth of self-realization, or complete absorption in the Supreme itself. His highest teaching of ‘self-inquiry was understood in the infinite silence of his presence. Thorough this silence, countless numbers of devotees and visitors experienced the pure bliss of True Being. He was always willing to answer the questions of sincere aspirants and never failed to guide them in the right direction.

All these initiatives and experiments have been bold, great, inspiring and all of them are still in various stages of growth and development; great lessons have to be learnt from these experiments and we have here a great fund of educational research that can guide us in the talks of value oriented education and of the entire transformation of our educational system.

Achha Sikshak Aur Achha Chhatra, Edited by Kireet Joshi, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi, 2002.

Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education: Theory and Practice, Edited by Kireet Joshi, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi, 2002.

Towards Tomorrow, Sri Aurobindo Society, Pondicherry, 2002.

The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil and The Aim of Life, Sri Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research, Auroville.


If we want to discuss the importance of philosophy.We should know about the nature of philosophy. Here is a basic problem of defining philosophy,its methods and the problems etc. Many interpretations we can find in Indian and Western tradition regarding the nature of philosophy. Here is a definition of philosophy which says, "philosophy is an open-ended, pioneering discipline, forever opening up new areas of study and new methods of inquiry." This is a suitable definition for philosophy.Philosophy is the science of sciences, when it discusses about the nature of other disciplines and when it will enquire about its own nature it is called as "Meta-philosophy".
Why it is needed ? when this question arises then we directly come to the problems of philosophy. There are three basic problems of philosophy :
1. The Problem of Knowledge :It is mainly discusses within Epistemology.
2. The Problem of Value: It is discusses within the Ethics and Axiology.Jointly this called as Value Theory.
3. The Problem of Reality:This is the area of Metaphysics.
Let us know about Epistemology, Axiology, Ethics and Metaphysics.
Epistemology: The area of philosophy that investigate the nature sources, authority and limits of human knowledge is called "Epistemology".
Axiology: It is the study of the nature and achievement of happiness.
Ethics: It is the study of the nature of moral behaviour and character.
Metaphysics: In this area of philosophy it discuss about the nature of reality. There are basically three views about the nature of reality.
1. Theism: Mind and matter are both real.
2. Materialism: No, only Matter is real.
3. Idealism: Matter is not real, only Mind is.It is basically the view s of the Eastern ideas in the world of thought.
And now we discuss how to teach philosophy to students. Here are many methods but mainly are these:
1. Relate students with classical texts of the thinkers like Plato, Aristotle, Descartes etc. This approach called as "Readings in Philosophy".
2. Teach the students how philosophy develop and what is its prime characteristics. Like as Rationalism, Empiricism, Ancient thinkers etc. This approach is called as "History of Philosophy".
3. Acquainted students with the problems of philosophy like the nature of truth, reality, mind and body etc. This approach is "Problems of Philosophy".
4. Engage students to discuss about the problem regarding daily matters and correlate it with the basic principles of Philosophy.It is called as "Doing Philosophy".
And lastly, lots of discussion has been made about the above mentioned topics. So, we can read or know about everything of philosophy. Mainly areas of philosophy developing with the new situations and circumstances of the world. We can draw the need of Philosophy in these lines:
"Philosophy is a way of being in the world of questioning it, interacting with it, and responding to it. Indeed, human mind is an ongoing dialogue about the topics of philosophy-- topics such as good and evil, right and wrong truth and falsity, appearance and reality. "

Spirit of Education


The term value may mean different things to different people but the concept of values and ethics is crucial to greatness or otherwise of all human action and behaviour. Value is what an individual desires, likes or prefers. Their perception of the value depends on their paradigm and prejudices. In every society there are continual changes in its concepts of values. In Indian tradition five basic human values, are namely Truth, Righteous Conduct, Peace, Love and Non-violence- the five sources of moral strengths. The values were further classified to facilitate their adoption contextually, logically and on a need-based approach in the following manner: (a) personal values, (b) social values, (c) cultural values, (d) global values, (e) spiritual values. The weak points of value-oriented education programme are as follow:

1. Lack of clarity of the conceptual framework.
2. Non-availability of suitable learning/ teaching materials and training modules.
3. A tendency to treat value education as yet another subject.
4. Lack of administration inputs.
5. Absence of good amount of orientation programmes for teachers/ educators, key-level personnel, and school teachers.


In order to realise Truth, beauty and Goodness through academic approach, stories, historical biographies, need to be carefully chosen and employed throughout the school curriculum.We should need teacher’s training programmes and also some learning material. Good source on teacher training programmes also available on the web.

Sri Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research, Auroville produced two books The Aim of Life and The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil and they can already be made a good vehicle of teacher’s training in value education and they can also be recommended for tertiary education. The Aim of Life contains the following aim with reference texts:

(i) Integrated aim of life
(ii) Cosmic terrestrial aim of life
(iii) Materialistic terrestrial aim of life
(iv) Scientific terrestrial aim of life
(v) Supra terrestrial aim of life
(vi) Supra conscious aim of life

The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil emphasized the qualities of a good teacher and the qualities of a good pupil. In essence, what it said for a good pupil is that there should be enthusiasm of the quest which impels the efforts so that he leaps up his hand to such an extent that he can be uplifted by the helpful hand of the teacher and for the teacher. The book emphasized the values of wisdom and the values of character that can serve like a magnet of example which can further be enhanced by the power of the contact of the soul of the teacher with the soul of the pupil and the book taken examples of good teachers and good pupils from the East and the West, so that ultimately we have a harmonious and universal philosophy of education.

This also implies a philosophy of child centered education, philosophy of life long education and philosophy of constant youth and freshness. The book started from the Vedas and the Upanishad, and brought out the stories of teachers and pupils of the Upanishads. Here also given the example of Krishna as a teacher and Arjuna as a pupil and an example of the Buddha himself a student and the Buddha as a teacher. It also spoke about the system of Zen Buddhism and learning and given also a story of Sufi teacher. Illustrating how he tests his pupils and how a pupil first failed and ultimately succeeds. There are also discussions about different Western educationist and their texts in the book. It took Letters from a Father to his Daughter which shows how as a good father trains his daughter and also famous example of Ramakrishna as a teacher to Vivekananda and also a text from The Mother. This book received a wide acceptance by educationists in the country. It is also translated and published by Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi in Hindi language.

Today education systems almost everywhere are utilitarian in character promoting an examination- oriented education. There goals are limited and have no intrinsic relationship with the idea of process and ends of genuine teaching learning. A question arises as to what system of education could encourage the flowering of good teachers and good pupils. The following suggestions are given as a modest attempt to this question:

Lectures should have much more modest place than they have today. A great role should be assigned to self-learning and to work on individual and collective projects.
Programmes of study should be much more flexible.
The examination system must be thoroughly revised. Texts should be designed to stimulate the pupils to make further progress.

An ideal system of education would provide an environment and frameworks that facilitate a harmonious blending presumptions, main parts teachers and educated administrators is the fulfillment of two conditions: the pursuit of the truth and the pursuit of harmony. Neither of these pursuits can be meaningful or fruitful unless they are voluntary. The spirit of liberty is a necessary condition for the search for truth and for securing cooperation, mutual good, will and feeling. In brief, it may be said that Truth, Harmony and Liberty will be the underlying principles of an ideals system of education and Sri Aurobindo’s approach helps us to find the said virtues.


Achha Sikshak Aur Achha Chhatra, Edited by Kireet Joshi, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi, 2002.

Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education: Theory and Practice, Edited by Kireet Joshi, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi, 2002.

Towards Tomorrow, Sri Aurobindo Society, Pondicherry, 2002.

The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil and The Aim of Life, Sri Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research, Auroville.

With thanks from the : http://niyamakphilosophy.blogspot.com/

Sri Aurobindo's Spiritualistic Education


The teachings of Sri Aurobindo are multifaceted and all-embracing but unified by his central vision of a spiritual and divine destiny which must evolve. Man is only a transitional being living in a mental consciousness but with the possibility of acquiring a new consciousness, the Truth-consciousness, and capable of living a life perfectly harmonious, good and beautiful, happy and fully conscious. During his whole life, Sri Aurobindo gave all his time to establish upon earth this consciousness, which he called Supramental, and to help those gathered around him to realise it. For it is only the descent of the Supermind which can create the perfection dreamt of by all through the ages and remould, not only the individual but also his social existence, into a divine pattern. His teachings centered on the following:

(i) The integral growth and perfection of the individual.

(ii) Social transformation and the development of a collective life where each one can occupy the place for which he is best suited and pour him out as a force for the growth and perfection of humanity.

(iii) The realisation of human unity in a harmonious and organised diversity, where each nation will become conscious of its true genius and offer its best for the whole mankind.

Students often question the relevance of spiritualism in their modern life. They want to know why they should know what they are within and why should they bother to change themselves. With rapid changes in the socio-economic aspects of life all over the world, students are under intense pressure, and are seeking something, which will help them to successfully deal with union with the universal and transcendent existence. Sri Aurobindo’s approaches will help in the same.

In ancient India the principal aim of education was to enlighten and prepare human consciousness and its instruments for both the inner and outer realisation of the highest potential of students. For example, Taittriya Upanishad enumerates some methods by which the Self can be realised. They are:
1. Ritam (Righteousness)
2. Satyam (Truthfulness)
3. Tapasaya (Meditation)
4. Dama (Discipline of senses)
5. Sama (Discipline of organs of perception)
6. Swadhaya (Learning about the Self)

If we want to find out the spiritual foundation to education we should move to our ancient education systems and scriptures. For this, orientation to teachers to take up new roles and responsibilities and counseling to students will form a continuous process in the most organise and professional manner help them to cope with expectations and pressures of emerging demands.

Reference: http://niyamakphilosophy.blogspot.com/

Philosophy दर्शन की परिभाषा

दर्शन की परिभाषा

दर्शन की कोई निश्चित परिभाषा देना काफी कठिन है लेकिन फिर भी बिना परिभाषा के किसी भी विज्ञानं या समाज विज्ञानं के अर्थ को नही समझा जा सकता। इस लेख में हम दर्शन की एक परिभाषा का विश्लेषण करेंगे।
"अनवरत और प्रयत्नशील चिंतन की बौधिक व्याख्या और उसके मूल्याङ्कन का प्रयास दर्शन कहलाता है।"
उपरोक्त परिभाषा में बहुत सी कठिनाइयाँ हें। इनको समझने से पहले हमें इसके विभिन्न घटकों को देखना होगा।

अनवरत शब्द का अर्थ है, लगातार /परम्परा से। लेकिन यहाँ पर अपवाद है की जब कोई दार्शनिक सोचता है, शायद वह कुछ नया दे दे । अत: यह शब्द सार्थक तो है, लेकिन परिभाषा में अनावश्यक है।

प्रयत्नशील चिंतन :
चिंतन दो प्रकार का है:
१ स्वाभाविक चिंतन (thinking without efforts) जैसे- मन में ख्यालों का चलना।
२ प्रयत्नशील चिन्तन ( thinking with efforts) - कोशिश द्वारा अर्थात जिसमे क्रमानुसार प्रक्रिया होती है। लेकिन ऐसा चिंतन बौधिक ही है। अत: इसको अलग कहने की आवश्यकता नहीं है। साथ ही केवल दर्शन ही नही अन्य विज्ञानों में भी प्रयत्नशील चिन्तन होता है और साथ में व्यावहारिक जीवन में हम कोई कम करने के लिए भी इसका इस्तेमाल करते है, लेकिन यह दर्शन नहीं है। जैसे यात्रा से पहले समय सारणी व कार्यक्रम बनाना।

चिन्तन के इस भेद को महत्वपूर्ण माना गया है। इसे तार्किक (logical) या प्रत्ययात्मक (conceptual) भेद कहा जाता है।

किसी भी परिभाषा को दो दोषों से रहित होना चाहिए -
१ अतिव्याप्ति दोष २ अव्याप्ति दोष

परिभाषा उस वस्तु के लक्षणों का मुख्यत: वर्णन करती है, लेकिन उपरोक्त परिभाषा की कमियों को हमें देखना होगा। अतिव्याप्ति दोष उसे कहते हैं, जिसमें लक्षण उस वस्तु के अलावा अन्य में भी रहते हैं जैसे 'गाय' उसे कहते ही, जिसके चार थन होते ही, इसमें अतिव्याप्ति दोष है , क्योंकि भैंस, बकरी इत्यादि के भी ऐसा होता है।

अव्याप्ति दोष उसे कहते है, जिसमें लक्षण अव्याप्त होता है, यानि अपूर्ण होता है, जैसे 'गाय' उसे कहते है, जो सफ़ेद होती है। यह लक्षण भी पर्याप्त नही है, क्योंकि गाय काली, भूरी इत्यादि हो सकती है।
उपरोक्त परिभाषा में प्रयत्नशील चिन्तन अन्य विज्ञानों में भी ही। अत: अतिव्याप्ति दोष ही और बौधिक व्याख्या का ही अंग ही।
जो लक्षण दो वस्तुओं में भेद प्रकट कर , उन्हें स्पष्ट करता है वह व्यव्छेद्क धर्म (differentiating characterstic) कहलाता है। वह परिभाषा में होना चाहिए । वैशेषिक दर्शन में 'कर्म' के लिए 'गति' व्यावर्तक धर्म है, क्योंकि यह उसे अन्यों से भेद दिखलाती है क्योंकि जहाँ भी कर्म है, वहां गति है, जैसे हाथ हिलाना।
दर्शन की परिभाषा के लिए एक और गुण है, जो बहुत आवश्यक है, जिससे वह अन्य बौधिक व्याख्याओं या विज्ञानों से उसे अलग करता है, यह है- इन्द्रियानुभाव निरपेक्ष होना यानि इन्द्रियानुभाव से परे होना।
लेकिन यहाँ परशान उठता है की इन्द्रियानुभाव निरपेक्ष होना गणित और तर्कशास्त्र में भी पाया जाता है, फिर यहाँ अंतर क्या रह जाता है ?
उतर है- दर्शन मानव-जीवन के विविध पक्षों को लेकर चलता है, जबकि गणित इससे बहुत भिन्न होता है। advanced mathematics केवल अवधारनाओं से भरा है। अनुभूति का कोई स्थान नही। अत: दर्शन की परिभाषा निम्न दी जा सकती है-
"मानव-जीवन के विविध पक्षों का बौधिक -अव्धारनात्मक चिन्तन या ऐसे चिन्तन का आलोचनात्मक मूल्यांकन दर्शन है।" (Pure rational-conceptual thought regarding different aspects of human life or a critical thought over such kind of thoughts may be called as philosophy.)

दर्शन की अन्य विशेषता यह है की यह self- critical है। कहने का भाव यही है की दर्शन ही एक मात्र ऐसा विषय है, जो अपने स्वरूप के बारे में सोचता है। अन्य विषय ऐसा नही करते। जैसे :
इतिहास क्या है?
विज्ञानं क्या है?
गणित क्या है?
विधि क्या है?
दर्शन ही एक मात्र विषय है, जो इसके बारे चिन्तन करता है, यह सभी के स्वरूप की अवधारनाओं का अद्ध्यन करता है।
आस्तित्ववादी दार्शनिक इससे भिन्न विचार रखते है, वे कहते है की बुद्धि या तर्क से जब हम मानव जीवन से सम्बन्धित अवधारणों को समझने की कोशिस करते ही, तो उनकी आत्मा का हनन कर देते हैं-जैसे प्यार, नैतिकता, धर्म इत्यादि। वास्तव में आस्तित्व नही रखते, लेकिन इनको समझने के लिए हमें इन्हें जीना होगा। यदि ऐसा ही तो साहित्य और दर्शन में समानता है, लेकिन फिर इनमें अंतर क्या रह जाता है ? यह समझ नही आता। उपरोक्त विचार अल्बर्ट कामू, काफ़्का,सार्त्र इत्यादि के हैं।

Meaning of Education

The term education usually denotes the technical sense and is generally limited to the context of teachers instructing students. I have quoted some thinkers here to draw out the right meaning of Education.


“In its broad sense, education refers to any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual…In its technical sense education is the process by which society, through schools, colleges, universities, and other institutions, deliberately transmits its cultural heritage–its accumulated knowledge, values, and skills–from one generation to another.”

“Education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers.”
Education inculcates certain values and principles and also prepares a human being for social life.
Sri Aurobindo
“That alone will be a true and living education which helps to bring out to full advantage, makes ready for the full purpose and scope of human life all that is in the individual man, and which at the same time helps him to enter into his right relation with the life, mind and soul of the people to which he belongs and with that great total life, mind and soul of humanity of which he himself is a unit and his people or nation a living, a separate yet inseparable member.”

It is said that education without clear cut aims is like a rudderless ship.
Here are some ojectives of a good educational system, we can broadly classfied in
(1) Individual Development
(2) Social and National Development

Individual Development

Education should enable a human being to attain the greatest possible harmony, internal and external, spiritual and material, for the fullest possible development of human potentialities and capacities. Development of an individual – physically, mentally and spritually is well known aim of education. Aim of education should be to make children self- confident and self dependent, and to make them strong physically and mentally.

Social and National Development
The social aim which means that education should produce effective individuals in the sense that they realize their responsibilities towards the society. Social aim of education is equally important because an individual lives in society and has his obligations towards his nation. There is a realisation that, the present education divorced from the real social content and social goals.

RELATION Individual and social aims of education are not contrary to one another। In fact they are complementary to one another. The purpose of education should be the development of the fullest possible capacities and potentialities physical and spiritual of a total man. It should make a man capable of earning his livelihood reasonably well to enjoy a happy and secure life while making effective contributions to the society and national effort of making India strong , advanced and prosperous.

SOCIALTRANSFORMATION Education should not merely equip an individual to adjust with society to its customs and conventions, but it should enable him to bring desirable changes in the society. “Every educational institution from secondary school to university college should be developed to become an agency of change….”
Education should enable us to move with times and attain excellence in science and technology.“One of the suggestions explicitly points out that, our education should integrate and unite the people of India, modernise society while preserving what is authentically Indian in our cultural and spiritual heritage”.

Acquisition of Values is needed for social transformation. Moral, cultural and spiritual values in education have been given immense importance .The following suggestion beautifully reconciles the twin objectives of modern technical sophistication and the ancient spirituality.
“New education policy of India should be built on the foundation of ancient spirituality and modern culture and technical sophistication. It should develop scientific temper and spirit of enquiry in the students”.
“The education system in all its branches and sectors should get itself involved in activities related to problems of local Community life and shall thus endeavour through the desirable community participation community involvement in the educational field to bring all education of its rightful place in community life।”

UNIVERSALISATION Emphasis should be given in cultivating good qualities like cooperation, good will, forgiveness, tolerance, honesty, patience etc. in order to encourage universal brother-hood and to prepare students worthy citizens of the country.Values of optimism and secularism, and service to the poor should be stressed on the young minds.

It may be pointed out that various dimensions individual and social development, social transformation, value- acquisition etc।, have been well identified in present time. We are of the opinion that Indian education should aim at producing men and women of knowledge, character and cultural values and trained skills to achieve excellence in their career and life.
George F. Kneller, Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1971). pp.20-21.
Amritbir Kaur, Education: Its Aims and Objectives
http://discoveringlife.sulekha.com/blog/post/2007/12/education-its-aims-and-objectives.htm, 08-04-2010.
Aims and Objectives of Education
http://go2.wordpress.com/?id=725X1342&site=milestone02.wordpress.com&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.education.nic.in%2Fcd50years%2Fg%2FT%2FGF%2F0TGF0201.htm&sref=http%3A%2F%2Fmilestone02.wordpress.com%2F2009%2F06%2F05%2Faims-and-objectives-of-education%2F ,22-04-2009
The Meaning and Purpose of Education

This Article is taken from the http://niyamakphilosophy.blogspot.com/ with thanks.

Friday, September 3, 2010

MF Husains dirtiness

Protest against M.F. Hussain's Derogatory Paintings

Attention! Latest Issues for Protest:

After Naked Bharatmata Hussain Painted "Rape Of India"...

Why should we protest against this painting ?

Representing India as a woman being raped, is nothing but terrible denigration. For an Indian, 'Bharat Mata' (Mother India) is a Goddess and not some figurative concept and showcasing her in this manner is highly outrageous and a completely unacceptable form of denigration.

It would be appropriate to ask MF Husain if he would have dared to make a similar painting had there been an attack on the UK, the UAE or Qatar and named it the 'Rape of UK, UAE or Qatar' ? (Husain has recently become a citizen of Qatar)

What is MF Husain's sick fascination for having sex with animals ? Why does he repeatedly superimpose his dirty minded eroticism on Deities ?

Why has he split the canvas in half ? Does he want to suggest that India will spilt ? Why this divisive implication that India will crumble under attack ?

Why has he painted the blood that has been spilt in the colour green ? And also the two bulls with green faces. The offenders of the cowardly terrorist attacks that India is facing, are the people who are symbolized by the colour green, and not the other way around. Does he expect the Islamisation of India ?

India has been wounded by innumerable terrorist attacks. Instead of expressing her pain, MF Husain has humiliated her and has added insult to her injury by showing her being raped and that too with the perverted suggestion of an animal straddling her and of a man pulling at her blouse and staring at her breast.

If MF Husain is truly an artist (as claimed by the artist community) and that all his thoughts about being outraged by terrorism were genuine, then why does he not paint others being nude and having sex with animals ? But as we have observed he depicts only India and Hindus in this manner.
Thus, for these reasons this painting is unacceptable to an Indian and it hurts and rapes our sensibilities.

Some questions we need to ask ourselves !
Why do intellectuals and the art world continue to applaud MF Husain's perverted endeavours and still paint him as an 'artist' ?
Has the collective mind of our social elite plummeted so deep, that on the one hand it puts men like MF Husain on a pedestal and on the other, summarily rubbishes a call for purity and feelings of national pride ?

That we are actually debating this issue and not taking immediate action against MF Husain is the very reason why India has been attacked for centuries and has instead only been hospitable to our invaders. Do we still want to continue to function in a manner that does not even recognize an assault on our collective consciousness in the form of this obnoxious painting ?

for details visit :http://www.hindujagruti.org/

Swami Ramdev and Bharat Swabhiman Andolan

This is Dr. Pratap Nirbhay Singh request all the readers of this blog to join their noble hand with this noble endeavour.
Jai Baba ramdev ji
Baba Ramdev is the icon of yoga of Pranayama and renowned Yoga teacher and an Ayurveda Guru. He was the disciple and the successor of Swami Shankardevji Maharaj. Today swamiji is considered to be a phenomenon not only in India but also abroad. The credit of making yoga a mass movement and organising camps that educate people on the importance of yoga in the country goes to Yoga guru Baba Ramdev. He has brought in awareness among the people about the benefits of yoga to the common man in simple and well explained manner. The Baba is responsible for pioneering the cause of taking Ayurveda and Yoga to every Indian household that has taught yoga regardless of any religion, including Hinduism. Baba Ramdev is like Patanjali muni (guru) of the present times.
The Yoga guru Baba Ramdev organizes camps for the common man including Bollywood stars and also offers yoga tips to professionals such as the British law-makers to make them more creative and energetic. The Yoga taught by the Baba can cure several incurable diseases as Baba Ramdev is currently doing in India.
Baba Ramdev is conscious of the issues that are being brought up at the incredible rate at which his mission is growing. Recently Baba Ramdev was the latest victim of the Congress Communist campaign to defame and denigrate the symbols of Hindu culture.
Baba Ramdev’s greatness and generosity extends to public service such as the building two universities in Uttarakhand and MP on subsidised land offered by the state governments.
Bharat  Swabhiman
He’s offered cure for most health problems. Now, he wants to cleanse the political system.
Yoga guru Baba Ramdev on Tuesday announced his entry into politics by naming his party, the Bharat Swabhiman, but insisted he won’t contest elections. “I will join politics to cleanse the system,” Ramdev said.
Ramdev, whose real name is Ramkishan Yadav, said his party would field candidates in all the 543 Lok Sabha seats in a bid to build a corruption-free India.
“We will have 7-10 lakh members in every district in a year or two,” he said, adding, “I will never contest elections and never take up any political position.” He said the next general election would be a watershed event, “when all the corrupt politicians will be wiped out” once the Bharat Swabhiman andolan becomes a force to reckon with.
“One of the main objectives of the movement is to end corruption and to bring back more than Rs300 lakh crore of black money from abroad for the country’s development,” he said. Baba Ramdev said the recent arrests of self-claimed spiritual gurus on criminal charges were “a very big conspiracy” even if some of them were indeed guilty.
भारत स्वाभिमान आन्दोलन
भारत स्वाभिमान  आन्दोलन बाबाजी का एक प्रयास है जो भारत की सोयी हुई आत्मा को जगायेगा
इस आन्दोलन के साथ जुड़कर अपनी मातृभूमि के प्रति अपने दायित्व का निर्वाह करें और अपनी राष्ट्रनिष्ठा का परिचय दें 
लिंक विज़िट  करें :


The Guru is Brahma, the Guru is Vishnu, the Guru is Shiva, the God of gods, the Guru is verily the Supreme Brahman. Salutations to the adorable Guru.


The Absolute Reality which is the fundamental cause of the universe and all beings is full (beyond all limitations which can be caused by time, space, and material). It is pure, free indivisible and homogeneous Consciousness. The individual self (jiva) which appears limited by time, space, and material, or name and form, is also full, pure, free, indivisible and homogeneous Consciousness. The individual Consciousness (self) which is full has come from that Absolute Consciousness which is also full. Here comes a discrepancy. How can something full come from something that is also full and still both remain full? This disparity is solved by the illustration of space. Space is recognized as full, free, pure, boundless, unattached, all-pervading, indivisible and homogeneous. When a barrier is erected in space, we say the space is divided and call it "room space, limited space," etc. If there is dust or contamination in the room, we say the space in the room is dusty or impure. We all know that space cannot be divided or become impure. It is always full, free, pure and indivisible. The divisions are assumed due to the barriers we construct in space. Similar is the nature of the Absolute Consciousness which is the Supreme Reality. Nothing can ever come from It. It alone exists. The separate individuality which one feels is due to the limiting adjuncts of body-mind complex which are, in reality, illusory appearances like dream objects or mirage seen in a desert or a rope mistakenly seen as a snake in dim light. When viewed in its real nature as Pure Consciousness alone, divested of its limitations, the individual Self is known to be one and the same Absolute Consciousness.

Vedanta is the teachings of the Upanishads (the concluding chapters of the four Vedas), the Brahma Sutras, the Bhagavad Gita, and their commentaries by Shri Sankaracharya, the 8th century philosopher saint. Veda means "knowledge" and anta means "end". Thus Vedanta means "the end of knowledge". Vedanta is that highest spritual knowledge knowing which, there remains nothing further to be known. It is Self knowledge (Atmavidya). It is knowledge of the Absolute Truth (Brahmavidya). Vedanta teaches the real or essential nature of God, the universe, and the individual being (Self) and its oneness with God. The quintessence of the teachings of Vedanta is that Brahman (God) which is Existence, Consciousness and Bliss Absolute is the only Reality and that the universe is an illusory appearance like a mirage seen in a desert or a rope mistakenly seen as a snake, and that the individual being (self) is essentially Brahman or God Himself. This oneness of the self (jiva) with Absolute Consciousness (Brahman or God) is the goal of Vedanta. For want of the right understanding about his real nature, man remains deluded and considers himself limited, unhappy, miserable and beset with innumerable problems. Vedanta shows the way to eradicate these problems once and for all and enables man to attain the highest spiritual enlightenment, peace, happiness and freedom (moksha) from repeated births and deaths. Knowledge of the Self (Atmavidya) and knowledge of the Absolute Consciousness (Brahmavidya) is the highest knowledge to be obtained. It is the highest of all human pursuits.


What Maxmular done with vedas?

(35) Max Müller. A paid employee, who translated the Rigved in a demeaning style. The hidden secrets of his life.

       1. Max Müller was a British agent, especially employed (in 1847) to write the translations of the Vedas in such a demeaning way so that the Hindus should lose faith in them. His personal letter to his wife dated December 9, 1867 reveals this fact.
2. He was highly paid for this job. According to the statistical information given on page 214 of the “English Education, 1798-1902” by John William Adamson, printed by Cambridge University Press in 1930, the revised scale of a male teacher was £90 per year and for a woman, £60 in 1853. The present salary of a teacher in London is £14,000 to £36,000 per year, which averages a minimum of at least 200 times increase in the last 146 years. Max Müller was paid £4 per sheet of his writing which comes to £800 of today (1999). This is an incredibly high price for only one sheet of writing. But it’s the general law of business, that the price of a commodity increases with its demand. The British were in such an imperative need to get someone to do this job and Max Müller was the right person, so they paid whatever Max Müller asked for. His enthusiastic letter to his mother dated April 15, 1847 reveals this fact.
3. Max Müller’s letters dated August 25, 1856 and December 16, 1868 reveal the fact that he was desperate to bring Christianity into India so that the religion of the Hindus should be doomed.
His letters also reveal that:
4. He lived in poverty before he was employed by the British, (5) his duplicity in translation was praised by his superiors, and (6) in London, where he lived, there were a lot of orientalists working for the British.

Letters of Max Müller.

“The Life and Letters of Friedrich Max Müller.” First published in 1902 (London and N.Y.). Reprint in 1976 (USA).

1. TO HIS WIFE, OXFORD, December 9, 1867.

“…I feel convinced, though I shall not live to see it, that this edition of mine and the translation of the Veda will hereafter tell to a great extent on the fate of India, and on the growth of millions of souls in that country. It is the root of their religion, and to show them what that root is, I feel sure, the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last 3,000 years.”


“I can yet hardly believe that I have at last got what I have struggled for so long… I am to hand over to the Company, ready for press, fifty sheets each year; for this I have asked £200 a year, £4 a sheet. They have been considering the matter since December, and it was only yesterday that it was officially settled.”

“…In fact, I spent a delightful time, and when I reached London yesterday I found all settled, and I could say and feel, Thank God! Now I must at once send my thanks, and set to work to earn the first £100.

3. To Chevalier Bunsen. 55 St. John Street, Oxford, August 25, 1856.

“India is much riper for Christianity than Rome or Greece were at the time of St. Paul. The rotten tree has for some time had artificial supports… For the good of this struggle I should like to lay down my life, or at least to lend my hand to bring about this struggle. Dhulip Singh is much at Court, and is evidently destined to play a political part in India.”

To the duke of Argyll. Oxford, December 16, 1868.

“India has been conquered once, but India must be conquered again, and that second conquest should be a conquest by education. Much has been done for education of late, but if the funds were tripled and quadrupled, that would hardly be enough… A new national literature may spring up, impregnated with western ideas, yet retaining its native spirit and character… A new national literature will bring with it a new national life, and new moral vigour. As to religion, that will take care of itself. The missionaries have done far more than they themselves seem to be aware of.

“The ancient religion of India is doomed, and if Christianity does not step in, whose fault will it be?”

4. (a) From the diary of Max Müller. Paris. April 10, 1845.

“I get up early, have breakfast, i.e. bread and butter, no coffee. I stay at home and work till seven, go out and have dinner, come back in an hour and stay at home and work till I go to bed. I must live most economically and avoid every expense not actually necessary. The free lodging is an immense help, for unless one lives in a perfect hole… I have not been to any theatre, except one evening, when I had to pay 2 francs for a cup of chocolate, I thought ‘Never again’.”

(b) To his mother. Paris, December 23, 1845.

“…instead of taking money from you, my dearest mother, I could have given you some little pleasure. But it was impossible, unless I sacrificed my whole future… I have again had to get 200 francs from Lederhose, and with the money you have just sent shall manage till January or February.”
5. On April 17, 1855, Bunsen wrote to thank Max Müller for an article on his

“You have so thoroughly adopted the English disguise that it will not be easy for any one to suspect you of having written this ‘curious article.’ It especially delights me to see how ingeniously you contrive to say what you announce you do not wish to discuss, i.e. the purport of the theology. In short, we are all of opinion that your cousin was right when she said of you in Paris to Neukomm, that you ought to be in the diplomatic service!”

6. To his mother. September 1, 1847.

“My rooms in London are delightful. In the same house lives Dr. Trithen, an orientalist, whom I knew in Paris, and who was once employed in the Office for Foreign Affairs in St. Petersburg. Then there are a great many other orientalists in London, who are mostly living near me, and we form an oriental colony from all parts of the world… We have a good deal of fun at our cosmopolitan tea-evenings.”

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Sri Aurobindo on Education

Central Object of Our National Education

It … should be clear that the only true education will be that which will be an instrument for this real working of the spirit in the mind and body of the individual and the nation. That is the principle on which we must build, that the central motive and the guiding ideal. It must be an education that for the individual will make its one central object the growth of the soul and its powers and possibilities, for the nation will keep first in view the preservation, strengthening and enrichment of the nation-soul and its Dharma and raise both into powers of the life and ascending mind and soul of humanity And at no time will its lose sight of man’s highest object, the awakening and development of his spiritual being.
In any country the best education that can be given to children consists in teaching them what the true nature of their country is and its own qualities, the mission their nation has to fulfil in the world and its true place in the terrestrial concert. To that should be added a wide understanding of the role of other nations, but without the spirit of imitation and without ever losing sight of the genius of one’s own country.
Principles of True Teaching Words of Sri Aurobindo

Nothing can be taught to the mind, which is not already concealed as potential knowledge in the unfolding soul of the creature. So also all perfecting of which the outer man is capable, is only a realizing of the eternal perfection of the Spirit within him. We know the Divine and become the Divine, because we are That already in our secret nature. All teaching is a revealing, all becoming is an unfolding. Self-attainment is the secret; self-knowledge and an increasing consciousness are the means and the process.

The True Teaching

The first principle of true teaching is that nothing can be taught. The teacher is not an instructor or taskmaster, he is a helper and a guide. His business is to suggest and not to impose. He does not actually train the pupil’s mind; he only shows him how to perfect his instruments of knowledge and helps and encourages him in the process. He does not impart knowledge to him; he shows him how to acquire knowledge for himself. He does not call forth the knowledge that is within; he only shows him where it lies and how it can be habituated to rise to the surface. The distinction that reserves this principle for the teaching of adolescent and adult minds and denies its application to child is a conservative and unintelligent doctrine. Child or man, boy or girl, there is only one sound principle of good teaching. Difference of age only serves to diminish or increase the amount of help and guidance necessary; it does not change its nature.

The second principle is that the mind has to be consulted in its own growth. The idea of hammering the child into the shape desired by the parent or teacher is a barbarous and ignorant superstition. It is he himself who must be induced to expand in accordance with his own nature. There can be no greater error than for the parent to arrange beforehand that his son shall develop particular qualities, capacities, ideas, virtues, or be prepared for a prearranged career. To force the nature to abandon its own dharma is to do it permanent harm, mutilate its growth and deface its perfection. It is a selfish tyranny over a human soul and a wound to the nation, which loses the benefit of the best that a man could have given it an is forced to accept instead something imperfect and artificial, second-rate, perfunctory and common. Every one has in him something divine, something his own, a chance of perfection and strength in however small a sphere, which God offers him to take or refuse. The task is to find it, develop it and use it. The chief aim of education should be to help the growing soul to draw out that in itself, which is best, and make it perfect for a noble use.

The third principle of education is to work from the near to the far, from that which is to that which shall be. The basis of a man’s nature is almost always, in addition to his soul’s past, his heredity, his surroundings, his nationality, his country, the soil from which he draws sustenance, the air which he breathes, the sights, sounds, habits to which he is accustomed. They mould him not the less powerfully because insensibly, and from that then we must begin. We must not take up the nature by the roots from the earth in which it must grow or surround the mind with images and ideas of a life, which is alien to that in which it must physically move. If anything has to be brought in from outside, it must be offered, not forced on the mind. A free and natural growth is the condition of genuine development. There are souls, which naturally revolt from their surroundings and seem to belong to another age and clime. Let them be free to follow their bent; but the majority languish, become empty, become artificial, if artificially molded into an alien form. It is God’s arrangement that they should belong to a particular nation, age, society, that they should be children of the past, possessors of the present, creators of the future. The past is our foundation, the present our material, the future our aim and summit.

…The wise teacher will not seek to impose himself or his opinions on the passive acceptance of the receptive mind; he will throw in only what is productive and sure as a seed, which will grow under the divine fostering within. He will seek to awaken much more than to instruct; he will aim at the growth of the faculties and the experiences by a natural process and free expansion. He will give a method as an aid, as a utilizable device, not as an imperative formula or a fixed routine. And he will be on his guard against any turning of the means into a limitation, against the mechanizing of process. His whole business is to awaken the divine light and set working the divine force….

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